Krieg 1812 Videodokumentation
Der Britisch-Amerikanische Krieg zwischen den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und dem Vereinigten Königreich, auch bekannt als Krieg von , Zweiter. Der Britisch-Amerikanische Krieg zwischen den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und dem Vereinigten Königreich, auch bekannt als Krieg von , Zweiter Unabhängigkeitskrieg oder Mr. Madisons Krieg, begann mit der Kriegserklärung der Vereinigten. Napoleons Russlandfeldzug von (im Französischen Campagne de Russie, im Russischen auch Vaterländischer Krieg – Отечественная война. Verdrängte Verbrechen: Der Britisch-Amerikanische Krieg besiegelte zwischen 18das Schicksal der indianischen Nationen. Der Krieg von wurde zwischen den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika und England von Juni bis Frühjahr geführt, obwohl der Friedensvertrag.
Verdrängte Verbrechen: Der Britisch-Amerikanische Krieg besiegelte zwischen 18das Schicksal der indianischen Nationen. Napoleons Russlandfeldzug von (im Französischen Campagne de Russie, im Russischen auch Vaterländischer Krieg – Отечественная война. begann die letzte militärische Auseinandersetzung zwischen Großbritannien und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. Nachdem der Krieg beendet.
Januar führte. Die wesentlich professioneller agierende US-Marine konnte auf dem Ontariosee eine starke Flotte aufbauen, welche die geschickt taktierenden britischen Schiffe zwar nicht ausschalten, aber effektive Unterstützung für Unternehmungen zu Land geben konnte.
Juni geschlagen und durch den Beschuss britischer Kriegsschiffe vom Ontariosee aus zu einem fluchtartigen Rückzug gezwungen.
Diese Rückschläge wurden in der Nacht vom Dezember durch einen britischen Überraschungsangriff auf Fort Niagara vervollständigt, der diese strategisch wichtige US-amerikanische Grenzfestung bis zum Ende des Kriegs in britische Hand brachte.
Am Die Briten mussten daraufhin das von der Versorgung abgeschnittene Detroit und die meisten anderen Eroberungen von räumen.
Damit erreichten die Amerikaner den ersten eindeutigen Sieg über die Briten zu Land und die weitgehende Beseitigung der britischen Präsenz westlich des Ontariosees.
Oktober und November abgebrochen werden. Diese wichtigen Siege konnten britische Truppen trotz sieben- bzw.
März , erwiesen sich die US-amerikanischen Truppen auf der Niagara-Halbinsel mit wesentlich fähigeren Kommandeuren und besser ausgebildeten Mannschaften als ebenbürtige Gegner der Briten.
Juli aber so schwere Verluste, dass sie ihre Invasion abbrechen mussten. September in der Schlacht bei Plattsburgh zurückschlagen.
Prevost wurde daraufhin abberufen und hätte sich vor einem Kriegsgericht verantworten müssen, wenn er nicht zuvor gestorben wäre.
Die US-Schiffe suchten deshalb nicht den Kampf mit den britischen Flottenverbänden, sondern versuchten, Handelsschiffe und einzelne Kriegsschiffe abzufangen.
Deswegen schenkte man diesen Erfolgen bzw. Verlusten eine besondere Aufmerksamkeit. Sie richteten sich nicht nur gegen die US-amerikanischen Kriegsschiffe, sondern auch gegen US-amerikanische Kaperschiffe, die hunderte britischer Handelsschiffe aufbrachten und dem Seehandel schwere Schäden zufügten.
Diese Kaperschiffe dehnten ihre Aktivitäten bis an die englische Küste aus und konnten sich in Einzelfällen sogar gegen Kriegsschiffe behaupten.
Mit den zunehmend schärferen Blockaden und Patrouillen wurde das Auslaufen für US-Schiffe immer gefährlicher, zumal die Briten nicht nur US-amerikanische Kriegsschiffe und Freibeuter jagten, sondern ihrerseits zahlreiche Handelsschiffe aufbrachten und den US-amerikanischen Seehandel damit massiv schädigten.
Ein Ergebnis dieser britischen Wachsamkeit war am 1. Dieser britische Erfolg hatte wiederum eine erhebliche psychische Auswirkung; der schwer verwundete Kapitän der Shannon, Philip Broke, wurde für seinen Sieg geadelt.
Zwar gelang den Amerikanern noch eine Reihe weiterer Erfolge, die sie jedoch mit dem Verlust der am Allerdings gelang es noch der USS Constitution , am Bei der Blockade der US-amerikanischen Küste nahmen die Briten zunächst bewusst die mit dem Krieg unzufriedenen Neuenglandstaaten von der Blockade aus.
Trotz des Kriegszustands scheint es teilweise weiterhin einen florierenden Handel zwischen Briten und Amerikanern gegeben zu haben, der von der US-Regierung erst nach und nach unterbunden werden konnte.
Die Briten blockierten ab dem Mai auf die gesamte Atlantikküste der USA aus. Die Blockade hatte eine ruinöse Wirkung auf die Wirtschaft der USA und leistete einen wesentlichen Beitrag dazu, die Friedensbereitschaft wachsen zu lassen.
Die örtlichen Milizen konnten gegen die Angreifer wenig ausrichten, und da die Briten die Miliztruppen als feindliche Soldaten betrachteten, war deren Privatbesitz von den Verwüstungen häufig ebenfalls betroffen.
August an der Chesapeake Bay landeten, in der Schlacht bei Bladensburg am August eine US-amerikanische Milizarmee auseinanderjagten und im Anschluss daran drei Tage lang ungehindert die öffentlichen Gebäude der Hauptstadt Washington plünderten und niederbrannten.
Präsident Madison musste nach Virginia fliehen. Keine der beiden Seiten sah sich in der Lage, den Krieg militärisch zu gewinnen.
Briten und Amerikaner waren daher zu Verhandlungen bereit. Russland trat bei den im August beginnenden Verhandlungen im belgischen Gent als Vermittler auf.
Die US-amerikanische Delegation hat dabei vergeblich versucht, die Zwangsrekrutierungen angeblicher Deserteure zu einem Teil des Friedensabkommens zu machen.
Der Friede von Gent wurde am Dezember in Gent unterzeichnet. Der Senat empfahl am Februar einstimmig seine Annahme.
Nach der Ratifizierung durch Präsident Madison trat er am Februar in Kraft. Obwohl der Friedensvertrag bereits unterzeichnet war, kam es im Südosten der USA noch einmal zu schweren Kämpfen, da dort die Nachricht vom Friedensschluss nicht rechtzeitig ankam.
Der Vertrag stellte lediglich den status quo ante bellum wieder her und sah eine friedliche Regelung strittiger Grenzfragen durch Schiedskommissionen vor.
Alle anderen Konfliktpunkte wie die Zwangsrekrutierung US-amerikanischer Seeleute wurden darin nicht erwähnt.
Die maritimen Streitpunkte erledigten sich jedoch von selbst, da die Royal Navy mit dem Ende des Krieges gegen Napoleon auf Zwangsrekrutierungen verzichten konnte und die Gründe für die Handelshindernisse mit Europa ebenfalls entfielen.
Auch gab es keine Notwendigkeit mehr für Bündnisse mit den Indianern, da die Grenzstreitigkeiten nun auf friedliche Weise beigelegt wurden und die Stämme durch den Krieg, nicht zuletzt durch den Tod Tecumsehs , erheblich geschwächt waren und der US-amerikanischen Expansion nun nur noch hinhaltenden Widerstand entgegensetzen konnten.
Der Krieg von war die letzte militärische Auseinandersetzung, bei der die Indianer eine nennenswerte militärische und politische Rolle spielten.
Trotz gelegentlicher Krisen blieben die Beziehungen im gesamten Jahrhundert friedlich. An Ansehen hatten die USA auch insgesamt gewonnen, da es ihnen gelungen war, sich gegen das britische Empire militärisch zu behaupten.
Die offene Verachtung, mit der die Amerikaner von Briten und anderen Mächten behandelt worden waren, gehörte nun der Vergangenheit an.
Die Niederlagen britischer Fregatten gegen ihre US-Pendants hatten im übrigen noch lange Auswirkungen auf die britische Marine und führten zu einer noch intensiveren Ausbildung britischer Matrosen.
On June the 28th Napoleon entered Vilnius with only light skirmishing. The foraging in Lithuania proved hard as the land was mostly barren and forested.
The supplies of forage were less than that of Poland and two days of forced marching made a bad supply situation worse. The thunderstorms of the 24th turned into other downpours, turning the tracks—some diarists claim there were no roads in Lithuania—into bottomless mires.
Wagon sank up to their hubs; horses dropped from exhaustion; men lost their boots. Stalled wagons became obstacles that forced men around them and stopped supply wagons and artillery columns.
Then came the sun which would bake the deep ruts into canyons of concrete, where horses would break their legs and wagons their wheels.
A Lieutenant Mertens—a Württemberger serving with Ney's III corps—reported in his diary that oppressive heat followed by rain left them with dead horses and camping in swamp-like conditions with dysentery and influenza raging though the ranks with hundreds in a field hospital that had to be set up for the purpose.
He reported the times, dates and places, of events reporting thunderstorms on the 6th of June and men dying of sunstroke by the 11th.
The Bavarian corps was reporting sick by June Desertion was high among Spanish and Portuguese formations.
These deserters proceeded to terrorize the population, looting whatever lay to hand. A Polish officer reported that areas around him were depopulated.
The French light Cavalry was shocked to find itself outclassed by Russian counterparts so much so that Napoleon had ordered that infantry be provided as back up to French light cavalry units.
Despite 30, cavalry, contact was not maintained with Barclay's forces leaving Napoleon guessing and throwing out columns to find his opposition.
The operation intended to split Bagration's forces from Barclay's forces by driving to Vilnius had cost the French forces 25, losses from all causes in a few days.
Napoleon assumed this was Bagration's 2nd Army and rushed out before being told it was not 24 hours later.
Napoleon then attempted to use Davout, Jerome, and Eugene out on his right in a hammer and anvil to catch Bagration to destroy the 2nd Army in an operation spanning Ashmyany and Minsk.
This operation had failed to produce results on his left before with Macdonald and Oudinot. Doctorov had moved from Djunaszev to Svir narrowly evading French forces, with 11 regiments and a battery of 12 guns heading to join Bagration when moving too late to stay with Doctorov.
Command disputes between Jerome and General Vandamme would not help the situation. Davout had lost 10, men marching to Minsk and would not attack Bagration without Jerome joining him.
Two French Cavalry defeats by Platov kept the French in the dark and Bagration was no better informed with both overestimating the other's strength, Davout thought Bagration had some 60, men and Bagration thought Davout had 70, Bagration was getting orders from both Alexander's staff and Barclay which Barclay didn't know and left Bagration without a clear picture of what was expected of him and the general situation.
This stream of confused orders to Bagration had him upset with Barclay which would have repercussions later. Napoleon reached Vilnius on 28 June, leaving 10, dead horses in his wake.
These horses were vital to bringing up further supplies to an army in desperate need. Napoleon had supposed that Alexander would sue for peace at this point and was to be disappointed; it would not be his last disappointment.
Barclay continued his retreat and with the exception of the occasional rearguard clash remained unhindered in his movements ever further east.
Rapid forced marches quickly caused desertion, starvation, exposed the troops to filthy water and disease, while the logistics trains lost horses by the thousands, further exacerbating the problems.
Barclay, the Russian commander-in-chief, refused to fight despite Bagration's urgings. Several times he attempted to establish a strong defensive position, but each time the French advance was too quick for him to finish preparations and he was forced to retreat once more.
When the French Army progressed further, it encountered serious problems in foraging, aggravated by scorched earth tactics of the Russian forces   advocated by Karl Ludwig von Phull.
Political pressure on Barclay to give battle and the general's continuing reluctance to do so viewed as intransigence by the Russian nobility led to his removal.
He was replaced in his position as commander-in-chief by the popular, veteran Mikhail Illarionovich Kutuzov. Kutuzov, however, continued much along the line of the general Russian strategy, fighting the occasional defensive engagement but being careful not to risk the army in an open battle.
Instead, the Russian Army fell back ever deeper into Russia's interior. Following a defeat at Smolensk on August 16—18 he continued the move east.
Unwilling to give up Moscow without a fight, Kutuzov took up a defensive position some 75 miles before Moscow at Borodino. Meanwhile, French plans to quarter at Smolensk were abandoned, and Napoleon pressed his army on after the Russians.
About a third of Napoleon's soldiers were killed or wounded; Russian losses, while heavier, could be replaced due to Russia's large population, since Napoleon's campaign took place on Russian soil.
The battle ended with the Russian Army, while out of position, still offering resistance. By withdrawing, the Russian Army preserved its combat strength, eventually allowing it to force Napoleon out of the country.
The Russian Army could only muster half of its strength on September 8. Kutuzov chose to act in accordance with his scorched earth tactics and retreat, leaving the road to Moscow open.
Kutuzov also ordered the evacuation of the city. By this point the Russians had managed to draft large numbers of reinforcements into the army bringing total Russian land forces to their peak strength in of , with perhaps , in the vicinity of Moscow—the remnants of Kutuzov's army from Borodino partially reinforced.
Both armies began to move and rebuild. The Russian retreat was significant for two reasons; firstly, the move was to the south and not the east; secondly, the Russians immediately began operations that would continue to deplete the French forces.
Platov, commanding the rear guard on September 8, offered such strong resistance that Napoleon remained on the Borodino field. Another battle was given throwing back French forces at Semolino causing 2, losses on both sides, however some 10, wounded would be left behind by the Russian Army.
The French Army began to move out on September 10 with the still ill Napoleon not leaving until the 12th. Some 18, men were ordered in from Smolensk, and Marshal Victor's corps supplied another 25, Miloradovich finally retreated under a flag of truce.
On September 14, , Napoleon moved into Moscow. However, he was surprised to have received no delegation from the city.
At the approach of a victorious general, the civil authorities customarily presented themselves at the gates of the city with the keys to the city in an attempt to safeguard the population and their property.
As nobody received Napoleon he sent his aides into the city, seeking out officials with whom the arrangements for the occupation could be made.
When none could be found, it became clear that the Russians had left the city unconditionally. Napoleon was secretly disappointed by the lack of custom as he felt it robbed him of a traditional victory over the Russians, especially in taking such a historically significant city.
Before the order was received to evacuate Moscow, the city had a population of approximately , people.
As much of the population pulled out, the remainder were burning or robbing the remaining stores of food, depriving the French of their use.
As Napoleon entered the Kremlin , there still remained one-third of the original population, mainly consisting of foreign traders, servants, and people who were unable or unwilling to flee.
These, including the several-hundred-strong French colony, attempted to avoid the troops. On the first night of French occupation, a fire broke out in the Bazaar.
There were no administrative means on hand to organize fighting the fire, and no pumps or hoses could be found. Later that night several more broke out in the suburbs.
These were thought to be due to carelessness on the part of the soldiers. The following night the city began to burn in earnest.
Fires broke out across the north part of the city, spreading and merging over the next few days. Rostopchin had left a small detachment of police, whom he charged with burning the city to the ground.
Fuses were left throughout the city to ignite the fires. The heat was intense. Moscow, composed largely of wooden buildings, burnt down almost completely.
It was estimated that four-fifths of the city was destroyed. Relying on classical rules of warfare aiming at capturing the enemy's capital even though Saint Petersburg was the political capital at that time, Moscow was the spiritual capital of Russia , Napoleon had expected Tsar Alexander I to offer his capitulation at the Poklonnaya Hill but the Russian command did not think of surrendering.
Sitting in the ashes of a ruined city with no foreseeable prospect of Russian capitulation, idle troops, and supplies diminished by use and Russian operations of attrition, Napoleon had little choice but to withdraw his army from Moscow.
At the Battle of Maloyaroslavets , Kutuzov was able to force the French Army into using the same Smolensk road on which they had earlier moved east, the corridor of which had been stripped of food by both armies.
This is often presented as an example of scorched earth tactics. Continuing to block the southern flank to prevent the French from returning by a different route, Kutuzov employed partisan tactics to repeatedly strike at the French train where it was weakest.
As the retreating French train broke up and became separated, Cossack bands and light Russian cavalry assaulted isolated French units.
Supplying the army in full became an impossibility. The lack of grass and feed weakened the remaining horses, almost all of which died or were killed for food by starving soldiers.
Without horses, the French cavalry ceased to exist; cavalrymen had to march on foot. Lack of horses meant many cannons and wagons had to be abandoned.
Much of the artillery lost was replaced in , but the loss of thousands of wagons and trained horses weakened Napoleon's armies for the remainder of his wars.
Starvation and disease took their toll, and desertion soared. Many of the deserters were taken prisoner or killed by Russian peasants.
Badly weakened by these circumstances, the French military position collapsed. He abandoned the army on 5 December and returned home on a sleigh,  leaving Marshal Joachim Murat in command.
According to the popular legend, only about 22, of Napoleon's men survived the Russian campaign. However, some sources say that no more than , soldiers were killed.
Most of the Prussian contingent survived thanks to the Convention of Tauroggen and almost the whole Austrian contingent under Schwarzenberg withdrew successfully.
Russian casualties in the few open battles are comparable to the French losses but civilian losses along the devastating campaign route were much higher than the military casualties.
In total, despite earlier estimates giving figures of several million dead, around one million were killed including civilians—fairly evenly split between the French and Russians.
As well as the loss of human life the French also lost some , horses and over 1, artillery pieces. The losses of the Russian armies are difficult to assess.
The 19th-century historian Michael Bogdanovich assessed reinforcements of the Russian armies during the war using the Military Registry archives of the General Staff.
According to this, the reinforcements totaled , men. The main army at the time of capture of Vilnius in December had 70, men, whereas its number at the start of the invasion had been about , Thus, total losses would come to , men.
Of these about 40, returned to duty. Losses of the formations operating in secondary areas of operations as well as losses in militia units were about 40, Thus, he came up with the number of , men and militiamen.
Rather its various units disintegrated and the troops scattered. Later many of this personnel were collected and reorganised into the new Dutch army.
Although the campaign was over by mid-November, there is some truth to the saying. The coming winter weather was heavy on the minds of Napoleon's closest advisers.
The army was equipped with summer clothing, and did not have the means to protect themselves from the cold. The most devastating effect of the cold weather upon Napoleon's forces occurred during their retreat.
Hypothermia coupled with starvation led to the loss of thousands. In his memoir, Napoleon's close adviser Armand de Caulaincourt recounted scenes of massive loss, and offered a vivid description of mass death through hypothermia:.
The cold was so intense that bivouacking was no longer supportable. Bad luck to those who fell asleep by a campfire! Furthermore, disorganization was perceptibly gaining ground in the Guard.
One constantly found men who, overcome by the cold, had been forced to drop out and had fallen to the ground, too weak or too numb to stand.
Ought one to help them along — which practically meant carrying them? They begged one to let them alone. There were bivouacs all along the road — ought one to take them to a campfire?
Once these poor wretches fell asleep they were dead. If they resisted the craving for sleep, another passer-by would help them along a little farther, thus prolonging their agony for a short while, but not saving them, for in this condition the drowsiness engendered by cold is irresistibly strong.
Sleep comes inevitably, and sleep is to die. I tried in vain to save a number of these unfortunates. The only words they uttered were to beg me, for the love of God, to go away and let them sleep.
To hear them, one would have thought sleep was their salvation. Unhappily, it was a poor wretch's last wish.
But at least he ceased to suffer, without pain or agony. Gratitude, and even a smile, was imprinted on his discoloured lips. What I have related about the effects of extreme cold, and of this kind of death by freezing, is based on what I saw happen to thousands of individuals.
The road was covered with their corpses. The Russians, properly equipped, considered it a relatively mild winter — Berezina river was not frozen during the last major battle of the campaign; the French deficiencies in equipment caused by the assumption that their campaign would be concluded before the cold weather set in were a large factor in the number of casualties they suffered.
Inadequate supplies played a key role in the losses suffered by the army as well. The French simply were unable to feed their army.
Starvation led to a general loss of cohesion. Though starvation and the winter weather caused horrendous casualties in Napoleon's army, losses arose from other sources as well.
This loss in strength was in part due to desertions, the need to garrison supply centers, casualties sustained in minor actions and to diseases such as diphtheria , dysentery and typhus.
By the time they fought the Battle of Borodino the force was reduced to , men. Napoleon's invasion of Russia is listed among the most lethal military operations in world history.
The Patriotic War of is also occasionally referred to as simply the " War of ", a term which should not be confused with the conflict between Great Britain and the United States, also known as the War of Napoleon termed this war the "First Polish War" in an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots.
Though the stated goal of the war was the resurrection of the Polish state on the territories of the former Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth modern territories of Poland , Lithuania , Belarus and Ukraine , in fact, this issue was of no real concern to Napoleon.
The British historian Dominic Lieven wrote that much of the historiography about the campaign for various reasons distorts the story of the Russian war against France in — Memoirs written by French veterans of the campaign together with much of the work done by French historians strongly show the influence of " Orientalism ", which depicted Russia as a strange, backward, exotic and barbaric "Asian" nation that was innately inferior to the West, especially France.
In Russia, the official historical line until was that the peoples of the Russian Empire had rallied together in defense of the throne against a foreign invader.
Furthermore, the 19th century was a great age of nationalism and there was a tendency by historians in the Allied nations to give the lion's share of the credit for defeating France to their own respective nation with British historians claiming that it was the United Kingdom that played the most important role in defeating Napoleon; Austrian historians giving that honor to their nation; Russian historians writing that it was Russia that played the greatest role in the victory, and Prussian and later German historians writing that it was Prussia that made the difference.
Leo Tolstoy was not a historian, but his extremely popular historical novel War and Peace which depicted the war as a triumph of what Lieven called the "moral strength, courage and patriotism of ordinary Russians" with military leadership a negligible factor has shaped the popular understanding of the war in both Russia and abroad from the 19th century onward.